User:TimeMaster/Affixes

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Prefixes[edit]

Verb prefixes[edit]

Productive prefixes. Those in italics are proposed for revival.

  • after- (after, spatially or temporally)
  • back- (returning, reversal)
  • down- (decrease, downward, low(er) meaning usually is phrasal)
  • ere- (before, temporally only)
  • for- (intensive, completive, turning out of for the worse, resulting in failure, produces adverse or opposite results
  • fore- (before, spatially or temporally)
  • half- (half, partially)
  • in- (in, mostly replaced with phrasal verbs, but healthier than at/forth/through probably because of French en-)
  • mis- (badly and so on)
  • out- (superiority, outer, out, forth, away, still often becomes phrasal)
  • over- (over (usually figuratively), hyper, super, across boundaries, superior, in excess, still often becomes phrasal)
  • since- (or sith-, after, temporally only)
  • te- (to bits, asunder) (or to-, but te- reduces confusion)
  • un- (negative, reversal)
  • under- (under (usually figuratively), hypo, sub, inferior, still often becomes phrasal)
  • up- (increase, upward, high(er), still often phrasal)
  • with- (against, kept alive due to with- changing meaning to mid)

Unproductive, but still prominent suffixes.

  • a- (no specific meaning)
  • an- (no specific meaning, merges into a- before vowels and h if unstressed)
  • be- (forms transitives from intransitives, nouns, or adjectives, intensive/completive/figurative transitives of other transitives)
  • on- (on, or no meaning, mostly become phrasal verbs)

Prefixes that die out because they were reanalyzed as forming phrasal verbs (some can continue as gerunds/participles):

  • afore- (replaced with adverb/phrasal "before")
  • at- (away, at, against, no meaning)
  • be- (when meaning by)
  • forth- (forth)
  • gain- (also yen-/yeen-/yean-/yein-/yain-, against, back, away)
  • mid- (when meaning with)
  • to- (to, in the preposition sense)
  • through- (through)
  • umb- (umb/around)
  • with- (or wither-, when not meaning against)
  • yond- (across, through, over, beyond)

Other dead prefixes:

  • ed- (re-, use "eft" (either as a prefix or simply an adverb instead))

co- is replaced with phrasal "together". Thus, cohabitate becomes live/wone together. Also see the "Adverbs attaching to participles" section for more possibilities, especially "eath-" and "full-".

Noun prefixes[edit]

These prefixes can often apply to a noun made from a verb (such as with -er), but not the base verb.

  • all- (all, omni-)
  • an- (can become a-, returning, opposition, response)
  • back- (in the back, reversal, reforming)
  • by- (secondary, incidental, parallel to, near)
  • even- (fellow,)
  • fore- (in the front)
  • folk- (people, demo-)
  • full- (full, pure)
  • great- (great, super-?)
  • half- (half, part)
  • hind- (in the back)
  • mid- (in middle of)
  • mis- (badness, mal-)
  • new- (new, neo-)
  • off- (similar to but still different)
  • old-/eld- (old, paleo-)
  • or- (primal, proto-)
  • over- (superior)
  • rain- (arch-, highest)
  • self- (self, auto-)
  • step- (step away from)
  • under- (inferior)
  • wan- (lacking, missing)
  • with-/wither- (against, counter-, anti-)

Dead prefixes that probably shouldn't be revived:

  • ang- (compressed, vexing)

co- is replaced with suffix -mate. Thus, coorbiter becomes orbitmate.

Adjective prefixes[edit]

See the "adverbs attaching to participles" list as well.

  • after- (after, post-)
  • all- (all, omni-)
  • between- (between, inter-)
  • even- (equally, equi-)
  • ever- (always, perma-)
  • half- (half, partially, semi-)
  • in- (in, not foreign)
  • new- (newly, neo-)
  • off- (similar to but still different)
  • old-/eld- (oldly, paleo-)
  • out- (out, foreign)
  • over- (over, in excess)
  • sam- (half, imperfect)
  • self- (usually on participles, auto-)
  • under- (under, not enough)
  • well- (well, emphasis)
  • with-/wither- (against, counter-, anti-)

co- is usually replaced with phrasal "together", especially when a participle. Thus, cohabitating becomes living together. mate- as a prefix can also be used, like "mateliving", particularly for non-participles.

Prefixes changing word type[edit]

These are mostly prepositions that have merged into nouns.

  • after- (after, e.g. post-)
  • down- (down, e.g. downhill)
  • fore- (before, e.g. pre-)
  • many-/mani- (many, e.g. poly-/multi-)
  • most- (most, or archaic alther/alder/aller)
  • one- (one, e.g. mono-/uni-/single-)
  • over- (over, e.g. overarm)
  • twi- (two, e.g. duo-/bi-/do-/double-)
  • umb- (around, about)
  • under- (under, e.g. undersea)
  • up- (up, e.g. uphill)
  • wan- (without)
  • yond- (beyond, trans-)

Adverbs attaching to participles[edit]

Some of these could end up making new verb affixes as well. Some, like eath-, and full-, were already used like this in Middle English, and many Anglish writers already use eft- innovatively like this.

  • all- (totally)
  • arveth- (difficult to, difficultly)
  • better- (better off/done)
  • bit- (partially)
  • broad- (generally)
  • but- (just, simply)
  • couth- (surely, certainly)
  • deed- (done by someone)
  • eath- (easily - attested in ME)
  • earli- (early)
  • eft- (again, re-)
  • else- (otherwise)
  • even- (evenly)
  • ever- (always)
  • far- (far, far from)
  • fern- (anciently, long ago)
  • first- (first, firstly)
  • full- (fully, completely - attested in ME)
  • great- (greatly)
  • hand- (by hand)
  • here- (here)
  • last- (last, finally)
  • late- (late)
  • less- (less, not very)
  • least- (least, barely at all)
  • like- (similarly to)
  • little- (little, slightly)
  • long- (for a long time)
  • more- (more, very, or: sen-)
  • most- (most, very very)
  • much- (much, very)
  • near- (almost, near)
  • never- (never)
  • new- (newly, recently)
  • nigh- (very nearly)
  • now- (now, currently)
  • off- (sort of)
  • oft- (often)
  • once- (once, formerly)
  • over- (too much)
  • right- (just right)
  • seld- (seldom)
  • short- (for a short time)
  • so- (so, very)
  • some- (partially)
  • soon- (soon, imminently)
  • still- (still)
  • swith- (swiftly, rapidly, strongly, very)
  • then- (afterwards)
  • there- (there)
  • thus- (consequently)
  • true- (correctly)
  • under- (not enough)
  • well- (well, good)
  • whole- (in whole)
  • wide- (widely)
  • wis- (surely, certainly)
  • wont- (habitually)
  • worse- (worse off/done)

Already standing:

  • after- (after)
  • fore- (before)
  • mis- (badly)
  • un- (not)

For calques and coinings[edit]

  • earth- (geo-)
  • ethel- (native, domestic)
  • even- (equal, fellow)
  • fire- (pyro-)
  • gouth-/heath- (war, battle)
  • hedge- (itinerant, travelling)
  • ice- (cryo-)
  • kin- (kingly, royal-)
  • lease- (false, pseudo-)
  • life- (bio-)
  • lift-/loft- (aero-, air-)
  • meat-/food- (relating to food)
  • neigh- (local)
  • net-/web- (internet, cyber-)
  • open- (public)
  • rodder- (astro-, cosmo-)
  • rune-/rown- (crypto-)
  • steal-/stal- (klepto-)
  • stone- (litho-)
  • sunder- (private, special)
  • theed- (national, public)
  • water- (hydro-)

Suffixes[edit]

States, conditions[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
dom ᛫ shows a state or condition ᛫ domain or jurisdiction ᛫ set of all examples ᛫ ᛫ -sphere ᛫ -cracy ᛫ -archy ᛫ -age (collection) ᛫ ~ NE
hood ᛫ a noun of, or a group sharing in a, condition or state; used on nouns and occasionally adjectives ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -ism (sometimes) ᛫ ~ NE
ing ᛫ instance of doing ᛫ material related to a deed ᛫ something that does a deed ᛫ result of doing ᛫ creates nouns of state; used on verbs ᛫ ᛫ -age ᛫ -al ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ery (instance) ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -ure ᛫ ~ NE[ing/ung]
lock ᛫ a noun of, or a group sharing in a, condition or state; used on nouns and occasionally adjectives ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -ism (sometimes) ᛫ ~ NE
ness ᛫ creates nouns from adjectives and occasionally other nouns ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -tude ᛫ ~ NE
red ᛫ forms nouns showing a condition or a state ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -ism (sometimes) ᛫ ~['-rēden/-rēden][-rǣden] NE found in: hatred; kindred
ship ᛫ a noun of, or a group sharing in a, condition or state; used on nouns and occasionally adjectives ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -ism (sometimes) ᛫ ~ NE
th ᛫ creates abstract nouns, especially in the sense of measurement, from adjectives and verbs of action ᛫ ᛫ -cy ᛫ -ity ᛫ -ty ᛫ -ance ᛫ -ence ᛫ -ment ᛫ -tion ᛫ -sion ᛫ -tude ᛫ ~ NE becomes -t after fricatives like /f/ and /x/ ?

Actions being performed[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
doing ᛫ doing and making ᛫ ~ ~ NE
fear ᛫ fear ᛫ ᛫ -phobia (most senses) ᛫ ~ NE
giving ᛫ doing and making ᛫ ~ ~ NE
hate ᛫ hate ᛫ ᛫ -phobia (some senses) ᛫ ~ NE
ledge ᛫ becoming ᛫ being and making (discouraged) ᛫ ᛫ -ification ᛫ -escent (becoming) ᛫ lǣcan OE example: rightledge = to righten; winterledge = to become winter
lore ᛫ study of ᛫ ᛫ -ology ᛫ ~ NE
love ᛫ love ᛫ obsession ᛫ ᛫ -aholism ᛫ -oholism ᛫ -philia ᛫ -mania ᛫ ~ NE
lust ᛫ lust ᛫ love ᛫ ᛫ -sexuality ᛫ -philia ᛫ ~ NE
making ᛫ doing and making ᛫ ~ ~ OE

Noun to noun[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
en ᛫ -ess ᛫ ~ NE unproductive
ful ᛫ amount of ᛫ ~ NE
kin ᛫ (diminutive suffix) ᛫ ~ NE from Dutch?
land ᛫ land ᛫ region ᛫ country ᛫ ᛫ -ia ᛫ ~ NEᚠC
lest ᛫ -lessness ᛫ -lēste[lēast] ME example: orelest = honourlessness
ling ᛫ ( diminutive suffix ) ᛫ ~ NE
meting ᛫ -metry ᛫ mete+-ing NE+NE
ock ᛫ ( diminutive suffix ) ᛫ ~ NE
ric (or rich) ᛫ shows a jurisdiction dominion or rule over something ᛫ ᛫ -ia ᛫ ~ NEᚠC
troth ᛫ ( denotes allegiance ) ᛫ troth&treuth NE&ME
wit ᛫ -ologist ᛫ wite ME
works ᛫ ( denotes a factory ) ᛫ ~ NE
worship ᛫ -latry ᛫ ~ NE
wright ᛫ -maker ᛫ -builder ᛫ -developer ᛫ ~ NE

Adjective to noun[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
some ᛫ group of a certain number ᛫ ~ NE
ward ᛫ a direction ᛫ ~ NE

Verb to noun[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
er ᛫ one that does ᛫ ~ NE
le ᛫ (suffix forming nouns from verbs denoting an instrument or means) ᛫ els/el[else] ME example: reek+el = reekle (insense)
ster ᛫ ( agent suffix , formerly a feminine agent suffix ) ᛫ ~ NE could be reverted to its old role as the feminine agent suffix
stead/stow ᛫ -ery (place) ᛫ -place ᛫ ~ NE could be reverted to its old role as the feminine agent suffix

Any to noun[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
et ᛫ (forms nouns from adjectives, verbs, and other nouns) ᛫ et OE lives on in "thicket"
lief ⟨ leef ⟩ ᛫ -ism ( but only for ideologies ) ᛫ lēve{gelēafa} ME
liever ⟨ leever ⟩ ᛫ -ist ( but only for adherents ) ᛫ lēve+er ME+NE
shaft ᛫ ( element suffix ) ᛫ shaft[gesceaft] ME
ther ᛫ -trum ᛫ -tron ᛫ ( shows a noun is a tool or instrument ) ᛫ þor/dor OE lives on in words like "lather" and "rudder"
wharver ᛫ -trope ᛫ hweorfa OE

Noun to adjective[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
bere ᛫ -bearing ᛫ bere[bǣre] ME
ed ᛫ having what a noun stands for ᛫ ~ NE
en ᛫ (pertaining to, made of) ᛫ ~ NE found in: "wooden"
enly ᛫ -able ("can do", active and intransitive senses) ᛫ -ably ᛫ endlīce/andlike ME or: -endly, -ingly
fast ᛫ (denotes stability, firmness, reliability, adherence to) ᛫ ~ NE
ful ᛫ full of ᛫ tending to ᛫ ~ NE
ish ᛫ -ian ᛫ -ic ᛫ characterization ᛫ ~ NE
lew ᛫ -prone ᛫ leu ME example: drunklew = prone to drunkeness
less ᛫ lacking something ᛫ ~ NE
like ᛫ like ᛫ resemblance ᛫ ᛫ -ac ᛫ -al ᛫ -ant ᛫ -ent ᛫ -ate (sometimes) ᛫ -ary ᛫ -esque ᛫ -ian ᛫ -ic ᛫ -ine ᛫ -ive ᛫ -ous ᛫ -ular ᛫ ~ NE
ly ᛫ having qualities of a noun ᛫ ~ NE
's ᛫ possessing ᛫ ~ NE
shildy ᛫ ( denotes guilt ) ᛫ scyldig OE example: godscyldig (godshildy) means "guilty against God"
some ᛫ -ous (suffix of characterization) ᛫ ~ NE
wise ᛫ ( adjectival and adverbial suffix showing manner ) ᛫ in regards to ᛫ ~ NE
y ᛫ -ous (suffix of characterization) ᛫ ~ NE

Adjective to adjective[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
er ᛫ more ᛫ ~ NE
ern ᛫ (shows the noun is a location) ᛫ -ery (like in "bakery") ᛫ ern OE
est ᛫ most ᛫ ~ NE
fold ᛫ number of times ᛫ number of parts ᛫ ~ NE
ish ᛫ -ian ᛫ -ic ᛫ approximation ᛫ ~ NE
kin ᛫ ( diminutive suffix ) ᛫ ~ NE from Dutch?
lew ᛫ -prone ᛫ leu ME example: drunklew = prone to drunkeness
ly ᛫ makes adverbs from adjectives ᛫ ~ NE
ward(s) ᛫ in a direction (s only for adverbs) ᛫ ~ NE
wise ᛫ ( adjectival and adverbial suffix showing manner ) ᛫ ~ NE

Verb to adjective[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
bere ᛫ -able ("can be done", passive senses) ᛫ bere[bǣre] ME
ed ᛫ done (past participle) ᛫ ~ NE
ing ᛫ doing (present participle) ᛫ -ent ᛫ -ive ᛫ ~ NE
some ᛫ -ous (suffix of characterization) ᛫ -ent ᛫ -ive ᛫ ~ NE
worthy ᛫ -able ( but only in some usages like " loveable " ) ᛫ ~ NE

Noun to verb[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
et ᛫ -ize ᛫ -ise ᛫ -ify ᛫ -fy ᛫ -ate ᛫ ettan OE like "bōt" (assistance, remedy) to "bōtettan" (to repair)

Adjective to verb[edit]

WORD MEANING OUTLANDERS FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
en ᛫ -ize ᛫ -ise ᛫ -ify ᛫ -fy ᛫ -ate ᛫ ~ NE found in: "fatten"
se ᛫ -ize ᛫ -ise ᛫ -ify ᛫ -fy ᛫ -ate ᛫ ~ NE found in: "cleanse"; rare

Verb to verb[edit]

WORD MEANING FOREBEAR WHENCE NOTES
le ᛫ ( frequentative verbal suffix ) ᛫ ~ NE found in words like "bubble"